Senegal's main industries include food processing, mining, cement, artificial fertilizer, chemicals, textiles, refining imported petroleum, and tourism. Exports include fish, chemicals, cotton, fabrics, groundnuts, and calcium phosphate. The principal foreign market is India at 26.7 percent of exports (as of 1998). Despite a relatively wide variety of agricultural production, (Peanuts, cotton, millet, rice, corn, sugarcane, and livestock), the majority are subsistance farmers. Production is subject to drought and threats of pests such as locusts, birds, fruit flies, and white flies; and much of Senegal lies in a drought-prone climate region, with irregular rainfall and poor soil. Only about 5% of cultivated land is irrigated.
Life expectancy by birth is estimated to 57.5 years. Health expenditure was at US$72 (PPP) per capita in 2004.
The "World Factbook" population pyramid graphs the age and sex of the population. African nations tend to be very narrow near the top, with few of the citizens reaching advanced ages, while the USA's profile actually broadens in the middle and narrows slightly at the bottom, with fewer children being born.
There were 6 physicians per 100,000 persons in the early 2000s (decade). Infant mortality was at 77 per 1,000 live births in 2005, but in 2013 this figure had dropped to 47 within the first 12 months after birth. In the past 5 years infant mortality rates of malaria have dropped.
The IHME mortality chart for Senegal reveals that AIDS, Tuberculosis and other infectious diseases, as well as nutritional deficiencies make up the largest blocks of morbidity statistics (about 18%) compared to <1% for the USA.
According to a 2013 UNICEF report, 26% of women in Senegal have undergone female genital mutilation. With only one known case of Ebola, the World Health Organization congratulated Senegal upon their good practices, proclaiming their repsonse exemplary.
Illiteracy is high in Senegal, particularly among women. The net primary enrollment rate was 69 percent in 2005. Public expenditure on education was 5.4 percent of the 2002–2005 GDP.
Senegal is bordered to the west by the North Atlantic Ocean, to the east by Mali. It is between Mauritania and Guinea-Bissau.